1801 - 1825

1801: Invention of the Jacquard loom
1803: United States buys out France's territorial claims in North America via the Louisiana Purchase. This begins the U.S.'s westward expansion to the Pacific referred to as its Manifest Destiny (which involves annexing and conquering land from Mexico, Britain, and Native Americans)
1804: Morphine is isolated from opium for the first time
1804-1806: Lewis and Clark Expedition
1800-1810: Flag semaphore is gradually adopted by various navies of the world
1812-1815: War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom
1815: Napoleon beaten at Waterloo
1825: The Erie Canal opens creating a passage from Albany, New York to Lake Erie

The Regency period in the United Kingdom is the period between 1811 and 1820, when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son, later George IV, was instated to be his proxy as Prince Regent. The term is often expanded to apply to the years between 1795 and 1837, a time characterized by distinctive fashions, politics and culture. In this sense it can be considered to be a transitional period between "Georgian" and "Victorian". The era was distinctive for its architecture, literature, fashions, politics, and snuffboxes. It was a period of excess for the aristocracy: for example, it was during this time that the Prince Regent built the Brighton Pavilion. However, it was also an era of uncertainty caused by, among other things, the Napoleonic wars, periodic riots, and the concern — threat to some, hope to others — that the British people might imitate the upheavals of the French Revolution. The term is sometimes used in various ways to include years surrounding the decade of the formal regency. If "Regency" is considered to be transitional between "Georgian" and "Victorian" then it would refer to the entire period from approximately 1811 until the accession of Queen Victoria, encompassing the actual period of Regency, along with George IV's reign in his own right and that of his brother William IV. If "Regency" is contrasted with "Eighteenth century", then it could include the whole period of the Napoleonic wars.